from Shalom Center: EXEMPTIONS FROM THE ARMY: TORAH & TODAY
EXEMPTIONS FROM THE ARMY: TORAH & TODAY
Several times a year, I write a “word of Torah” for the “People and the Book” column of the Jerusalem Report. One of those essays is being published this week. It addresses the regular weekly Torah portion Jews will read this Shabbat in synagogue.
Among other matters, the Torah portion lists reasons for exempting young men from military service. Practically on Torah cue, just a few days ago, Lt. Ehren Watada faced a pre-court-martial hearing for becoming the first Army officer to refuse assignment for duty in Iraq.
Part of a Time magazine article on this event appears below my essay from the Jerusalem Report.
What do YOU think about the Torah provisions? About Lt. Watada’s action??
This essay and report are posted on our Website at http://www.shalomctr.org/node/1171
and you can comment there at the bottom of the entry. Please do!
And if you use this commentary in your own Torah discussion this weekend, please let us know there too what you and others said.
Soldiers, Kings, and the “Gentle Heart”: Torah Today
The Torah portion that early asserts, “Justice, justice shall you pursue” (which means “Just ends by just means,” said the rabbis) is deeply concerned with putting limits on political and military power.
The “perek hamelekh” (passage on the king; Deuteronomy 17:14-20), puts constitutional limits on royal power: the king may pile up no horse-chariots for an aggressive war; no wealth out of payoffs for favors; no series of sexual conquests. He must not “send the people back into Mitzrayyim” – the Narrow Place of slavery, Egypt — to pay the costs of his army. He must drink in precisely the teachings that limit his powers and empower the poor, by both reading them and writing his own copy of them.
And the Torah portion knows that with kings come wars–and that when military service becomes onerous or wars become unpopular, some disaffected soldiers might breed more disaffection in the army. Yet exempting them might encourage and strengthen opposition to the war. What to do in this dilemma?
The Torah teaches (Deuteronomy 20: 5-8):
Then the officials shall address the troops: “Is there anyone who has built a new home but not yet dedicated it? Let him go back to his home, lest he die in battle and another dedicate it. Is there anyone who has planted a vineyard but has never harvested it? Let him go back to his home, lest he die in battle and another eat from it. Is there anyone who has paid the bride-price for a wife, but who has not yet married her? Let him return to his home, lest he die in battle and another marry her.” The officials shall go on addressing the troops and say, “Is there anyone afraid or rakh halevav“[gentle-hearted,” or “disheartened,” or “faint-hearted,” or “soft-hearted”]? Let him go back to his home, lest he melt the heart of his brothers, like his heart!’
I Maccabees 3:56 reports that even when the land was under occupation by the Hellenistic empire ruled by Antiochus, and the Temple had been desecrated — the most extreme imaginable moment, when imaginably no one would have been exempted from military service — Judah Maccabee applied this passage of Torah. He ordered back to their homes the newly married, the new homebuilders, the new vine-planters, and those who were frightened or gentle-hearted.
About three centuries later, Rabbi Akiva (Tosefta, Sotah 7:22) commented, “Why does the verse [after specifying ‘the fearful’] then say ‘and the disheartened’? To teach that even the mightiest and strongest of men, if he is compassionate (Rachaman), should turn back.” So both those who are afraid to be killed and those who are afraid lest they become killers must be exempted.
Perhaps this provision operated as a rough public check-and-balance, to measure whether the people really believed a specific war was worth dying for and worth killing for. If a king, or a council of middle-aged men, sent the young to kill and die in a worthless war, the young still had a way out.
The provisions limiting royal power and those limiting military power may have been intertwined in the Torah’s mind with the possibility of “seeking to achieve justice by just means.”
What would happen to modern nation-states, military forces, and wars if these passages of Torah were our model, or even just our teaching?
Would we deny our national leaders the offensive weapons that are the “horse chariots” of today? Would our armies send home exactly the young who now make up the bulk of them — first-time home-owners, the newly married, those just entering a first career? Would fear of being killed, rather than being scorned as cowardice, become a reason for exemption? Would simply claiming “conscientious” objection be sufficient reason for exemption — rather than being surrounded by suspicion and demands for proof?
These issues appear anew in every generation; seldom do we consider the wisdom of millennia and generations past in shaping the political structures of our world.
FIRST REFUSAL OF U.S. OFFICER TO OBEY ORDERS TO DEPLOY IN IRAQ[My article in Jerusalem Report is complete at that point. But almost on cue for the Torah reading comes a real-live case in the present. What follows is a report from Time magazine.]
August 18, 2006
When he refused to deploy to Iraq in June, Army Lt. Ehren Watada said he was following his conscience and upholding his duty not to obey illegal orders. But that didn’t impress military officials, who promptly charged him with violating Army rules and sent him on a path toward a likely court-martial.
In doing so, they set up an unusual collision between a man who is believed to be the first officer to refuse duty in Iraq and a military justice system that is now effectively being asked to rule on the war’s legality.
In a packed hearing room on this Army base south of Seattle Thursday, lawyers for Lt. Watada used the opportunity to put the war itself on trial, trying to prove he was right to see the war as “manifestly illegal,” and as a result, to refuse to participate. “A soldier has an obligation to disobey illegal orders,” said Francis Boyle, a Harvard-trained professor of international law who testified on behalf of Lt. Watada and whose mentor wrote the Army’s field manual for land warfare. “Under the circumstances of this war, if he had deployed, he would have been facilitating a Nuremberg crime against peace.”
Boyle, along with a former United Nations Undersecretary-General and a retired army colonel, argued that the U.S. decision to attack Iraq in 2003 without U.N. authorization made the war illegal from the beginning. He went further, arguing that the failure of the Bush Administration to find either weapons of mass destruction or a provable link between Iraq and the Sept. 11 attacks showed that Congress was persuaded “by means of fraud” when it voted to authorize the war.
Lt. Watada, 28, joined the Army after Sept. 11 and initially served in South Korea, where he received stellar marks from his superiors. As recently as last summer he was willing to go to Iraq. In January, after he became convinced that the war was illegal, he tried to resign rather than go to Iraq, but the Army wouldn’t let him do so. As a compromise, he asked to be sent instead to Afghanistan, a war he supports. His request was not granted.
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